Pearl millet is an important cereal grown by farmers in environmentally marginalised areas. In Uganda it is mainly grown in northern (Acholi), northeastern (Karamoja) and eastern (Teso) regions. The regions are characterised by semi-arid conditions with high temperatures, low mean annual rainfall and widespread chronic food insecurity. Technologies that increase pearl millet productivity under such conditions have been developed in international research institutes to highlight the importance of pearl millet as a resilient crop suitable for drought conditions. However, not much is known about the importance of the crop in Uganda. A baseline survey was thus conducted to document pearl millet farmers’ socioeconomic and production characteristics in the country. Information was collected about demography and food security situation, livelihood, social capital and trainings, importance and utilisation of pearl millet, agronomic characteristics, desirable and undesirable traits, factors of crop and animal production, post-harvest handling, production and marketing constraints and coping strategies.