Agroforestry can play a significant role in improving rural livelihoods and enhanced integrated management of natural resources in Uganda. To develop an agroforestry research and development strategy for eastern and mid-northern Uganda and a benchmark for measuring impact of future activities, community resource assessments were conducted in these areas between October 2002 and June 2003. The districts of Iganga, Busia, Tororo, Kumi and Katakwii were covered in the eastern lowlands agro-ecological zone, while the districts of Mbale and Sironko were covered in the eastern highlands zone. In the mid-northern agro-ecological zone, Lira district was covered. Both qualitative and quantitative data was collected using rapid rural appraisals, field observations and in depth interviews through field surveys. Results obtained from the various assessments were validated through feed back workshops involving all the major stakeholders. The study identified the current tree growing practices in the zones; tree species preferred by households and their uses; tree management practices by the households; major factors affecting tree growing by households and the potential agroforestry interventions in the zones. The opportunities for research and development in the zones are also highlighted. It is concluded that agroforestry has potential to contribute to the improvement of rural livelihoods in these areas. However, for this to happen, the involvement of farmers and stakeholders in designing agroforestry interventions is paramount.