Agricultural research in Uganda started around 1898. However, research on manures came into light after 19-03 when commercial cotton varieties were introduced in the country. It was after the cotton introductions that declining soil fertility was considered a serious problem. Under the Uganda conditions, the use of artificial fertilisers was ha~pered by their high cost attributed to heavy freight charges due to geographical position. Secondly, cotton was grown entirely by the peasant farmer who was extremely unlikely to adopt use of ai\y form of mineral fertilisers. At that time research in the use of locally available materials become important. This paper reviews work that has been conducted on the production and use of livestock manures and composts in soil fertility and productivity improvement in Uganda. Farmyard manure production and use, and related composts are emphasised.