Groundnut rosette virus disease (GRVD) is the major constraint to groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) production in Uganda. It is principally transmitted by the groundnut aphid (Aphis craccivora Koch). The disease is known to cause total crop failure in cases where susceptible varieties are used. During any particular season, GRVD displays variations in incidence and severity in different agro-ecologies within the country, but the reasons for the varying disease patterns remain unclear. This study was aimed at establishing the factors influencing the occurrence of GRVD in Uganda. Trials were established for three seasons in four groundnut growing locations situated in different agro-ecologies in Uganda. Four groundnut genotypes were used as treatments in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Disease progress and aphid populations were assessed at 4, 8 and 12 weeks after planting. Data on environmental factors; particularly rainfall, temperature and wind speed were obtained from standard meteorological stations located at/near the study sites. Soil samples and yield data were also obtained in each season. The study revealed that disease incidence; severity and groundnut yields were significantly affected by season, location and genotype. The same applied to their three way interactions. Levels of disease infection were found to be majorly influenced by rainfall and wind speed. Disease incidence and severity were generally higher in conditions with less rainfall and low wind speeds. The Pearson's two tailed correlation between total rainfall and disease incidence for all trial sites was negative and highly significant (r = -0.280, P = 0.01). The same was true for wind speed and disease incidence (r = -0.476, P = 0.01). However, there was no conclusive trend between temperature and disease incidence with the Pearson's two tailed correlation showing significantly positive and negative trends depending on location.